Friday, May 22, 2020

The Management of Small and Medium Enterprises - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2006 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? SMEs The small scale industries play very heavy role in fuelling the overall economic growth. The small scale industries set up by entrepreneurs have contributed to the increased shares in the overall production, exports and capacity utilization of SMEs. The significance of SMEs in giving large-scale employment is of a supreme importance. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Management of Small and Medium Enterprises" essay for you Create order In generally the whole of articles the overall performance of the SMEs has been examined in intensity on the basis of the different parameters. Most of the economies do not enjoy place advantage in terms of raw materials and reach to nearby markets because of most of its industries and on top of that it is true tough because of SMEs. The industries which have developed are mostly dependent on money from other countries for satisfying the demand. As far as the arrangement of the products manufactured by these true industries is concerned, reliance on outside markets is quite considerable. Products in what one the region has come to specialize include textiles, sports, electrical and electronic products, agricultural products, machinery, etc. According to my understanding, in order to grasp better conduct of any business, a substantial thing is to select the right form of organization since the amount of capital, risk and control; etc the whole of depends on the form of the busin ess organization. There are lots of issues that the SMEs face in order to survive. They are Sources of Funds The main source of funds was from personal and family sources. The entrepreneurs in developing countries depend mostly on family funds while those in developed economies try to tap some nearby sources like allies. However in developed economies the resources come from the government as well as banks. External Motivating Factors There are a number of factors, which motivate a person to enter into any industry. Some factors are internal whereas others are external. Among the external factors are incentives to start up the new ventures encouraged by low barriers to entry into entrepreneurial activities. Heavy demand for the product, high profit margin and other external factors are other reasons for the SMEs to open the business into new territories. Managerial Performance of Small Scale Units An effort has been made to scrutinize a variety of managerial problems like production, marketing, finance, organization behavior and the institutional support of the SMEs. Since the large number of SMEs become sick due to various managerial factors, hence, in order to capture the trend, a preliminary survey has to be carried out and in-depth analysis of various managerial problems should be undertaken. Similarly, various behavioral and socio economic factors of industrial entrepreneurs like age, group, belief, education, leadership qualities and motivational factors also play an important role in the working of the SMEs units. Government Policy/Incentives Government Policy and the incentives provided for the promotion of SMEs have had a positive effect on the performance of SMEs. Since the problems faced by SMEs are quite different and unusual, hence the respective governments are making necessary changes in the policies from time to time by introducing the provision of subsidy, incentives and infrastructural facilities to encourage the output of the SMEs. Labor Management Problems Since majority of the SMEs are labor intensive, they often face of the labor unrest and issues with the trade unions, hence it is quite suitable to find a reason for unrest/labor problems which respective governments have failed to do so and is creating unnecessary problems and a barrier for the SMEs to improve their performance. INTERNAL PROBLEMS OF SMEs Planning related problems Technical Feasibility : insufficient technical know-how Location disadvantage obsolete production process Economic viability : High cost of inputs Break-even point too high unprofitable size of project Choice of idea weak structure Faculty planning Poor Project implementation Lack of strategies Lack of vision insufficient connections Lack of Motivation Under estimation of financial requirements Unduly large investment in fixed assets Over estimation of demand Implementation Cost increases resulting from delays in getting licenses and sanctions, etc. and insufficient liquidity in the market. General Problems Production management: unsuitable product mix pitiable quality control pitiable capacity utilization High cost of production pitiable inventory management Inadequate maintenance and replacement Lack of timely and adequate modernization etc. High wastage Poor production Labor Management : Very high wage structure Inefficient handling of labor problems Excessive manpower Poor labor productivity Poor labor relations Marketing management : Dependence on a single customer of a limited number of products Poor sales realization Defective pricing policy Booking of large orders at fixed prices in an inflationary market Weak market organization Lack of market feedback and market research Lack of knowledge of marketing techniques immoral sales/ purchase practices Financial Management Poor financial planning inaccurate costing factual dividend policy General financial indiscipline and application of funds fo r unauthorized purposes shortage of funds Over trading Unfavorable gearing or keeping adverse debt-equity ratio Administrative Management : Lack of professionalism Lack of feedback to management Lack of control Lack of timely diversification unnecessary expenditure on Research and Development External Problems Infrastructural : Location Power Water Communication Non-availability or irregular supply of critical raw materials or other inputs Transport bottlenecks Financial : Capital Working capital Long-term funds Recovery Marketing Taxation Raw material Industrial and financial regulations Inspections Technology Government policy Administrative Hurdles Rampant corruption Lack of direction Competitive and volatile Environment Innovation and SMEs Innovation worthy of the name is a test, and so it is easy to predict that organizations will always have difficulty in doing it efficiently. A lot of opinion leaders have debated that innovation activity is something that must necessarily be cut off from the rest of the organization. Amount of  prudence that  may  occupy  can or cannot be adjusted to  revolutionary  technologies or not?  Can the organization sustain with its current base of familiar customers or not?, changing a strategic paradigm will bring a change or not?, breaking out of prevailing patterns of decision making, adjusting the product architecture, and learning from experience will bring change in the motivation levels and will it take the organization forward or not?, being any and all of these, it is understandable that managers always seek to bring in innovation through the business processes. The four activities that stemmed out of the articles about innovation Market-technology Linkage It seeks to link purchaser needs with the organizations technical capabilities such that the product has integrity, i.e.- its design reflects the firms technological, manufacturing, and marketing capabilities, customers needs, and market structure. Techniques because of the performance of this linkage include exposure to lead users and close interaction with (potential) customers through, for example, team visits of customer premises to determine in what manner the product might best meld with the customers processes or own product offering. Market-technology linking attempts to bridge inside and outside. The development of one organization identity in terms of the value it provides to customers may be a passage of bridging inside and outside and breaking the strong inward pull of day-to-day operations from one side allowing the different functions- most notably, perhaps, marketing and manufacturing-to invoke common context for their interactions. Organizing for Creative Problem-Solving This describes the coordination of interdependent activities: understanding the constraints people in various functions face, anticipating their needs, and pulling scattered information together from one side constant interaction. The tension here is between aged and new: the new product may require new suppliers, new procedures, novel parts and it must compete in the resource-allocation process through products profoundly embedded in the organization through existing ways of working. However, a capacity to see the organization as process is also vital if the complexity of innovation is to be managed. It is crucial for everyone to view the organization as a process; individuals can see how their work flows into the work of others and how products involve. Monitoring and Evaluation These two constitute the third put of activities underlying innovation, and describe the need to lay upon n-going cost/benefit analysis to the innovation effort. Given inherent ambiguity, innovators be obliged o rely on others to assess progress, which involves, for example, accepting the judgment of others and integrating diverse views without compromising the project. Phase and budget reviews are two techniques that provide assistance, yet this particular activity is also problematic. One may rely on abstracted processes of formal control to coordinate a broad variety of activities. Commitment to the Innovation Process This aspect comprises the final put of activities; a commitment that is greater degree of depending than regular act because of the ambiguity inherent in innovation. Teamwork may provide the satisfaction of both accountability and confidence and so help generate commitment; career paths, broad interpretation of work roles, and operational autonomy all contribute to broadening it. The tensions between independence and responsibility are embodied in the issue of commitment, and this is single of the most challenging tradeoffs in theory in the manner that spring as in practice. And because, over time, individuals will announce to different supervisors, be on distinct teams, and form new act relationships, generating such a sense of commitment is an organization-wide issues and cannot be assigned to the project level. But in emphasizing control within organizations single also emphasizes individual accountability, through systems of measurement and exact job definition, to an extent th at encourages individuals to limit their personal responsibility. Innovation and Society In method to grasp any debating of capacities because of innovation it is therefore, necessary to receive into record the social context and we also have to consider the institution that form them. Diverse institutional arrangements have lack of vision encourage different forms of organizational activity. A theory of innovation in the context of developing countries like Cyprus and even Austria allows us to see more clearly in what manner broad characteristics of an alliance to act to defeat economic disadvantages through their influences on organizational-level behavior. Innovation in Developing Countries In the context of developing economies, technology has been the traditional point of concentration of researches while conduct with the egress of the describing of capacities because of innovation. Innovations are generally believed to be centered on transfer of technology, appropriate condition intervention and provision of incentives because of innovation. Consequently, innovation in developing countries had primarily get a move of economists who analyze like issues at either the country or industry level; at most good studies have considered only the very large environment that environs organizations. It is even that market forces are considered to be responsible because of all change that occurs in society and the sustainable competitive advantages are the chief way to formulate a corporate strategy geared towards innovation. Any observed act on innovation in developing countries is at the level of organizations is noticeably poor. Thus change in the context of development h as typically been treated in conditions of efficiency and a principle of adopting most good practices. The only assurance of change in a developing society that is considered heavy enough is technological and the single passage in what one capacities because of innovation be able to be developed is from one side adopting best practices. Successful product-innovation adds value because of the customer, and is achieved from one side the unfolding of underlying capacities which can be related to action. However, just in the manner that single organization cannot confide to successfully exist out of re-engineering its processes and in the manner that a proceed capacity, the extent to what the capacities themselves are attainable is really influenced from one side the sort of organization that draws its members. Such a framework should be of especial use to entrepreneurs doing ownership in developing countries. It provides an instrument for evaluating the likely usefulness of Western man agerial practices, and for intellect what necessarily to change because of innovation is to become a part of any firms on-going activities. Conclusion Providing as it does multidisciplinary perspectives on entrepreneurship (SMEs) and innovation in the context of economic and social development, the 20 articles can be essential read for even management experts, managerial trainers, designers of entrepreneurship development programmes and even policy makers.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Violence Of African American Communities - 953 Words

With the many conversations about the African-American communities and their issues with gang violence, government assistance, and the lack of jobs in their communities it is clear to say that the American Dream or even a moderate lifestyle was not created for all African Americans and Minorities and since we found a way to be noticed, heard, and felt like they’re rightfully a part of something America wants to now label it â€Å"war or Drugs† and â€Å"gang Violence† thus creating Gang Injunctions in those predominantly of color communities. Now I am not stating that the violence is not present, innocent lives are not being taken, nor are drugs consuming our communities, but what I am saying is that they act as if there is no other approach that could help clean up the streets, provide piece and harmony among all communities, and solve issues for the betterment of the community. Instead they are removing them from their communities, threatening them from going t o their neighborhood, and as a consequence they get jail time, an institution that already houses half if not more than half of our black men. The gang injunction initiative is set up to tear apart the minority communities through driving up the prices and making them move, especially if they have a family member who is under the injunction’s rules. Its ironic how they put them in such enclosed space, while they make suburban home for the economically fit causing them to commute and now they are systematically removing themShow MoreRelatedThe Prevalence Of Gun Violence Essay1457 Words   |  6 PagesPrevalence of Gun Violence In African American Communities Introduction Each year homicide and assault-related injuries result in an estimated $16 billion in combined medical and work loss ( Gun violence may be broadly defined as a category of violence and crime committed with use of a firearm, it may or may not include actions ruled as self defense, actions for law enforcement. Gun violence is prevalentRead MoreEssay about Black on Black Crime928 Words   |  4 PagesBlack on black violence is an enormous problem in the African-American community. Living in a neighborhood that is mostly minority, many may have witnessed a lot of black on black violence. The black on black violence has continued to arise in many communities and continues to be a problem around the world. Black on black violence is ignorant, and many black Americans should be coming together instead of killing one another. African-Americans people should be helping each other achiev e in the worldRead MoreViolence And Culture : A Cross Cultural And Interdisciplinary Approach By Jack David Eller1208 Words   |  5 PagesAs Americans, living in a egotistical and self centered society, we often think that we are the best, the top 1 percent in every aspect. However, When compared to other countries of the world, America is ranked 14th in education, 44th in health care efficiency, and 101th in peace. But it ranks first in incarceration, 2nd in ignorance, and 3rd in global competitiveness. One can see how the rankings that America is top in are those that promote violence in one way or another. In the book Violence andRead MoreEssay on Nonviolence or Violence: Which Was More Effective?1425 Words   |  6 PagesThe Civil Rights Movement brought many accomplishments to African Americans such as the 1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968. The key issues that African Americans fought for were voting rights, integration and ra cial equality. They were tired of the discrimination and humiliation they received as a result of the segregation laws imposed on them. â€Å"State laws mandated racial separation in schools, parks, playgrounds, restaurants, hotels, public transportationRead MoreDomestic Violence And Foreign Violence1251 Words   |  6 Pages Domestic Violence and Intersectionality Domestic violence, as defined by The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence is, â€Å"The willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, and/or other abusive behavior as part of a systematic pattern of power and control perpetrated by one intimate partner against another. It includes physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and emotional abuse. The frequency and severity of domestic violence can vary dramatically, howeverRead MoreAnalysis Of Uncle Toms Children By Richard Wright892 Words   |  4 Pageswas able to depict the poor social conditions of African-Americans in the South. African-Americans during the time period of Richard Wright were oppressed and were treated with violence by the whites of America. African-Americans experienced racial prejudices and humiliation everywhere, for example in Uncle Tom’s Children, Richard Wright relates his experiences with racism through playing games with white children as well as, through the violence and bigotry that he experiences at work from his co-workersRead MoreRalph Ellison s Battle Royal985 Words   |  4 Pagesthrough what mirrors to be what the African-American community in the twentieth century is shaping to be. Through the violence, Ralph Ellison, and the narrator had found voice and determination of dreams. Within the short story of â€Å"Battle Royal,† there is a great deal of violence, a lateral mirror image to the different events that had been happening within the mid-twentieth century. Violence is one of the historic events in the mid-twentieth century. The violence is a prominent fixture throughoutRead MoreDomestic Violence, Racial Socioeconomic Disparities, And Racial Labeling1655 Words   |  7 Pageshear of professional athletes being involved in domestic violence and other violent crimes, it is important to notice a trend. There is always some athlete being accused of some form of domestic violence. True sociological issues need to be addressed when violent issues such as the O.J. Simpson case arises. Simpson was influenced by a variety of sociological factors that created him into a violent person, such as the way in which African Americans are portrayed by the media, racial socioeconomic disparitiesRead MoreThe Black Man s Existence Of The World And Me, By Ta Nehsi C oates Essay1686 Words   |  7 Pagesdeath is one of the most primal things that every person feels. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Use of Money as a Motivational Factor in the Workplace Free Essays

string(101) " known that different people are motivated by different factors just as they are gifted differently\." Haohan Wu Vladimir V Kalugin PHIL 305 08. 19. 2012 The Use of money as a Motivational Factor in the Workplace Claim: This paper aims at proving that the use of money as a motivational factor in the work place is equitable to a bribe and should not be allowed. We will write a custom essay sample on The Use of Money as a Motivational Factor in the Workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now Explanation of the Claim: To start off, there is need to explain as to what motivation means and how money comes into the equation. According to Saddiqui, motivation is the act of giving another person the incentive or a reason to do something (1). That is, giving the individual the hope or support to carry out a particular act. Psychology Today quips that motivation is the desire to do something (2). As such, motivating is the act of creating the desire to do something in an individual. That is, propelling someone towards doing a particular thing as opposed to pushing an individual away. To further explain the aspect of motivation, Bizhelp (para. 1) explains the Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory of motivation, which has it that there are two types. First of all are the factors that motivate the individuals to continue working. These are the factors that make the people appreciate their job; hence they continue putting all their efforts at it. On the other hand, there are the factors, which prevent job satisfaction. These are not, in whichever way, related to the happiness of the individuals. Rather, they just remove the unhappiness from work; hence making the people work more comfortably. In other words, they are referred to as the hygiene factors. Business Plan Hut explains that there are many ways of motivating the employees and those monetary incentives are one of the many ways (para. ). With the concept of motivation well explained, there is the need to look at the definition and explanation of a bribe, so that a comparative analysis of the two can be carried out to show that monetary incentives and the bribe are one and the same. According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, a bribe is â€Å"money or favor given or compromised in order to influence the judgment or conduct of a person in a position of trust, or something that serves to induce or influence† (1). By bringing these two definitions together, that is the efinition of motivation by money and that of a bribe, it can be seen why this essay takes that monetary motivation is equivalent to a bribe. It comes out quite clearly that money is a major factor in bribing, just as it is when used as a motivation factor. The above explanations bring about a controversial issue as pertains to the issue of using money as a motivational factor. It is, therefore, quite important to look at the issue in more detail so as to come up with a solid argument as to whether money should be used as a motivation factor or not. The argument will be largely based on the definitions given, and will rely on the understanding of the writer as pertains to the issue of money and motivation. These factors will be explained in detail in the following section of the argument. Reasons for the Claim Below are some of the reasons as to why this paper holds that monetary incentives should not be used as a motivation factor within the workplace: 1. From the definitions given above, it can be seen that a bribe is a monetary incentive given to an individual so as to sway his decision or act in a given manner. In other words, it is practically buying an individual so that he can act in a manner that is in accordance with the desire of the individual giving the bribe. The same happens when an individual is given an incentive as a motivation factor. It is aimed at making the individual feel kind of obliged to give a particular service or deliver given results so as to get the incentive. By any means, this is a bribe in disguise, and should not be allowed at all since it leads to the corruption of morals within the organization. 2. Monetary motivation can be seen as a form of manipulation of the employees. This is where they are put in a position where they have to fulfill a particular requirement so that they can have the incentive. Practically, it is the kind of analogy where the employee plays the dangling carrot with the employees. The employees feel or assume that they are working hard so as to get a specific reward, while in the real sense; the employer is playing his cards so as to make the employees work even harder for him. The monetary gain seems so enticing for the employees that they work so hard just to get it, while all the time, the employer gets the lion’s share. The trick works in the exact manner as a bribe. Give something little and get much in return. 3. Monetary incentives can ruin or corrupt the morals within an organization. This can be seen in the cases where the employees understand that they have to achieve something or hit specific standards so that they can get the reward that is promised to them. As such, they can go to whichever ends so as to reach these standards, due to their need for the money. This works the same way as a bribe does. When people are bribed in order to do something, they have to make sure that they use whichever means possible to arrive at the expected result. Whether the means are wrong or right. In other words, there is total disregard of transparency or the ethics code of conduct. 4. Lastly, there is the fact that monetary incentive as a motivation factor can plant conflicts and unnecessary or unhealthy competition amongst the employees. It is well known that different people are motivated by different factors just as they are gifted differently. You read "The Use of Money as a Motivational Factor in the Workplace" in category "Essay examples" As such, when the rewards are given in terms of cash, there is a high possibility that those who get the reward work hard and continue delivering the results while those who do not get the reward are de-motivated. This works out exactly like a bribe. Some people are favored and others are not. Rivalry comes in within the organization and the performance is hindered. This caps the reasons as to why monetary motivation should be avoided. Therefore, there is always the other side of the coin in everything. In this case, there is another argument as concerns the use of monetary motivation, which tries to indicate that it should be allowed. The reasons are as stated below. i. First of all, it is acceptable that there are many ways of achieving a set goal. The same applies in the work place. When there is the need to motivate the employees, there are various methods that can be applied. The use of monetary incentives is just one of them. Therefore, there should be no hullaballoo as to why the monetary motivation is not used. In fact, monetary incentives hit the charts as one of the most effective ways of motivating the employees to achieve the goals of the industry, which puts the organization on the right track to achieving its overall objectives (Anon. , 1). ii. Just like in any other setting, it is agreeable that there are always the positive and the negative sides of any given act. As such, there are the advantages and the disadvantages of using monetary incentives as a form of motivation. As such, there is no need to demonize the act and term it as a bribe. Otherwise, if this was to be taken as the standard in different arguments, then a lot of activities would be written off since there would be the dark side in every single of them. In this case, the focus should be on the positives and the negatives, and whichever wins carries the day. Monetary motivation should not be ruled out even before it has been tried. iii. It is well known that in the business setting, the ultimate goal is to make profits and be the most competitive. This does not come all that easily since there are various hurdles that have to be overcome. Just like in any field, there have to be ways of going about these hurdles. When it comes to the employees, motivation, nothing seems to work out better then the use of the monetary incentives. As such there is no reason as to why this should not be employed in the business setting. iv. Lastly, it can be said that the main reason as to why people seek for employment is so that they can make money. This means that they work hard so that they can achieve this goal. As such, it can be seen that the main reason as to why they are motivated is what they get from the employment. As such, when monetary incentives are used as a motivation factor, they do not come in as a bribe. Rather, they just indicate to the employees that their hard work is all that matters. The more you work, the more you get. Simple and clear. Decision After looking at the reasons and the arguments presented above, this paper goes in favor of the claim. It, therefore, agrees that the use of monetary gains as a motivation factor should not be encouraged in the work place. It is equitable to a bribe, which is ethically and morally wrong. The reasons for taking this stand are well explained in the section that follows. Rebuttals i. While it is acceptable that there are many ways of motivating the employees, it is also important to look at the various outcomes of the different strategies that are applied. In this case, it has been proven that the use of money as a motivation factor has quite a lot of disadvantages that put the organization’s integrity at risk. As such, there is no reason as to why this method should be chosen while there are others that deliver the same result but at a much lower risk. Business entails making wise decisions, and using monetary motivation does not pay out in this case (Burns, 1). ii. As already explained above, being in business entails looking at the prevailing situation, analyzing the benefits and demerits of a given decision then making a decision from this analysis. This calls for a very practical and critical mind that cannot be deceived by the face value of a deal that seems to be so good. For this reason, it is agreeable that the use of money as a motivation factor has its advantages and disadvantages. After weighing both, it appears that the disadvantages are more. Why, then, should an organization take the risk while there are other safer ways of getting the work done? iii. It is commonly said and known that two wrongs do not make a right. In the business sense, it cannot be denied that there are the hurdles that have to be overcome. But just because the hurdles are there, it does not mean that anything passes as long as it aims at dealing with the hurdles. Rather, the spirit of doing things right should apply in this case. The hurdles should be overcome in a manner that does not create more problems. The methods used should be very ethical and straight. v. It is true that the reason as to why people seek employment is so they can make more money and live more comfortable lives. It is also true that people who get into crooked deals such as corruption, vandalism and embezzlement of funds also do so in a bid to make more money and live good lives as well. As such, this cannot be used as the reason fro using money as an incentive. After all, hum an wants are insatiable and money cannot quench them all. Instead of providing a shortcut to making more money, organizations and businesses should focus more on doing this in the right manner. Works Cited Anonymous. Employee Morale. Business Community, 2012. Web, 24th July 2012, http://www. ehow. com/employee-morale/ Bizhelp. Motivation in the Workplace. Bizhelp24. com, July 21, 2012. Web, 24th July 2012, http://www. bizhelp24. com/personal/employment-and-personal-development/motivation-in-the-workplace. html Burns, Gabriel. The Disadvantages of Extrinsic Motivation. Ehow. com, 2012. Web, 24th July 2012, http://www. ehow. com/list_6534932_disadvantages-extrinsic-motivation. html Business Plan Hut. Motivating Employees. Businessplanhut. com, 2012. Web, How to cite The Use of Money as a Motivational Factor in the Workplace, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Tamed Shrews And Twelfth Nights - The Role Of Women In Shakespeare Ess

Tamed Shrews and Twelfth Nights - The Role of Women In Shakespeare It is curious to note the role of women in Shakespearean literature. Many critics have lambasted the female characters in his plays as two-dimensional and unrealistic portrayals of subservient women. Others have asserted that the roles of women in his plays were prominent for the time and culture that he lived in. That such contrasting views could be held in regards to the same topic is academic. It is only with close examination of his works that we are able to suppose his intent in creating characters that inspire so much controversy. Two works, Taming of the Shrew, and Twelfth Night, stand out particularly well in regards to Shakespeares use of female characters. After examining these two plays, one will see that Shakespeare, though conforming to contemporary attitudes of women, circumvented them by creating resolute female characters with a strong sense of self. The Taming of the Shrew is one of Shakespeares most famous plays, and has weathered well into our modern era with adaptations into popular television series such as Moonlighting. For all the praises it has garnered throughout the centuries, it is curious to note that many have considered it to be one of his most controversial in his treatment of women. The taming of Katherine has been contended as being excessively cruel by many writers and critics of the modern era. George Bernard Shaw himself pressed for its banning during the 19th century (Peralta). The subservience of Katherine has been labeled as barbaric, antiquated, and generally demeaning. The play centers on her and her lack of suitors. It establishes in the first act her shrewish demeanor and its repercussions on her family. It is only with the introduction of the witty Petruchio as her suitor, that one begins to see an evolution in her character. Through an elaborate charade of humiliating behavior, Petruchio humbles her a nd by the end of the play, she will instruct other women on the nature of being a good and dutiful wife. In direct contrast to Shrew, is Twelfth Night, whose main female protagonist is by far the strongest character in the play. The main character Viola, has been stranded in a foreign land and adopts the identity of her brother so that she might live independently without a husband or guardian. She serves as a courtier to a young, lovesick nobleman named Orsino. Throughout the play she plays as a go-between for him to the woman he loves. In the course of her service, she falls in love with him. Only at the end, does she renounce her male identity and declares her love for him. Both plays portray female characters unwilling to accept the female role of passivity. Katherine rebels against this stereotype by becoming a shrew, a violently tempered and belligerent woman. Viola disguises herself as a man for most of the play in order to preserve her state of free will. Katherine endures reprimands, chiding, and humiliation in the course of her chosen rebellion. Viola enjoys life and position as a man, and does not reveal who she is until the last scene of the play. Curiously enough, both women voluntarily accept the roles that society would impose on them again at the close of the plays. It is important to note though, that they freely resume these roles, and that they do so out of their own sense of self. For each woman, it is a personal choice based on their desires. In the case of Katherine, she realizes that propriety is as much a signature of self-respect as respect for others, and she has a husband whom she need prove nothing to because he already respects her. In the case of Viola, she is in love with the young Orsino. Having found the man she would be willing to wed, the pretense of her male identity is no longer necessary, as she desires to be his wife. Having seen the similarities between Viola and Katherine, one should take notice that they do have different circumstances regarding their behavior. The reason for Katherines shrewish demeanor is never given in the play, though many directors have interpreted it as an act

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Overview of the First Battle of Panipat

Overview of the First Battle of Panipat Trumpeting, their eyes wide with panic, the elephants turned back and charged into their own troops, crushing scores of men underfoot. Their opponents had brought a terrifying new technology to bear, something the elephants likely had never heard before Background to the First Battle of Panipat Indias invader, Babur, was the scion of the great Central Asian conqueror-families; his father was a descendant of Timur, while his mothers family traced its roots back to Genghis Khan. His father died in 1494, and the 11-year-old Babur became the ruler of Farghana (Fergana), in what is now the border area between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. However, his uncles and cousins fought Babur for the throne, forcing him to abdicate twice. Unable to hold on to Farghana or take Samarkand, the young prince gave up on the family seat, turning south to capture Kabul instead in 1504. Babur was not satisfied for long with ruling over Kabul and the surrounding districts alone, however. Throughout the early sixteenth century, he made several incursions northward into his ancestral lands but never was able to hold them for long. Discouraged, by 1521, he had set his sights on lands further to the south instead: Hindustan (India), which was under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate and Sultan Ibrahim Lodi. The Lodi dynasty was actually the fifth and final of the Delhi Sultanates ruling families during the late medieval period. The Lodi family were ethnic Pashtuns who took control over a large section of northern India in 1451, reunifying the area after Timurs devastating invasion in 1398. Ibrahim Lodi was a weak and tyrannical ruler, disliked by the nobility and commoners alike. In fact, the noble families of the Delhi Sultanate despised him to such a degree that they actually invited Babur to invade! The Lodi ruler would have trouble preventing his troops from defecting to Baburs side during the fighting, as well. Battle Forces and Tactics Baburs Mughal forces consisted of between 13,000 and 15,000 men, mostly horse cavalry. His secret weapon was 20 to 24 pieces of field artillery, a relatively recent innovation in warfare. Arrayed against the Mughals were Ibrahim Lodis 30,000 to 40,000 soldiers, plus tens of thousands of camp followers. Lodis primary weapon of shock and awe was his troop of war elephants, numbering anywhere from 100 to 1,000 trained and battle-hardened pachyderms, according to different sources. Ibrahim Lodi was no tactician; his army simply marched out in a disorganized block, relying on sheer numbers and the aforementioned elephants to overwhelm the enemy. Babur, however, employed two tactics unfamiliar to Lodi, which turned the tide of the battle. The first was tulughma, dividing a smaller force into forward left, rear left, forward right, rear right, and center divisions. The highly mobile right and left divisions peeled out and surrounded the larger enemy force, driving them towards the center. At the center, Babur arrayed his cannons. The second tactical innovation was Baburs use of carts, called araba. His artillery forces were shielded behind a row of carts which were tied together with leather ropes, to prevent the enemy from getting between them and attacking the artillerymen. This tactic was borrowed from the Ottoman Turks. The Battle of Panipat After conquering the Punjab region (which today is divided between northern India and Pakistan), Babur drove on toward Delhi. Early on the morning of April 21, 1526, his army met the Delhi sultans at Panipat, now in Haryana State, about 90 kilometers north of Delhi. Using his tulughma formation, Babur trapped the Lodi army in a pincer motion. He then used his cannons to great effect; the Delhi war elephants had never heard such a loud and terrible noise, and the spooked animals turned around and ran through their own lines, crushing Lodis soldiers as they ran. Despite these advantages, the battle was a close contest given the Delhi Sultanates overwhelming numerical superiority. As the bloody encounter dragged on toward midday, however, more and more of Lodis soldiers defected to Baburs side. Finally, the tyrannical sultan of Delhi was abandoned by his surviving officers  and left to die on the battlefield from his wounds. The Mughal upstart from Kabul had prevailed. The Aftermath of the Battle According to the Baburnama, Emperor Baburs autobiography, the Mughals killed 15,000 to 16,000 of the Delhi soldiers. Other local accounts put the total losses at closer to 40,000 or 50,000. Of Baburs own troops, some 4,000 were killed in the battle. There is no record of the elephants fate. The First Battle of Panipat is a crucial turning point in the history of India. Although it would take time for Babur and his successors to consolidate control over the country, the defeat of the Delhi Sultanate was a major step towards the establishment of the Mughal Empire, which would rule India until it was defeated in turn by the British Raj in 1868. The Mughal path to the empire was not smooth. Indeed, Baburs son Humayan lost the entire kingdom during his reign  but was able to regain some territory before his death. The empire was truly solidified by Baburs grandson, Akbar the Great; later successors included the ruthless Aurangzeb and Shah Jahan, the creator of the Taj Mahal. Sources Babur, Emperor of Hindustan, trans. Wheeler M. Thackston. The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince, and Emperor, New York: Random House, 2002.Davis, Paul K. 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.Roy, Kaushik. Indias Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to Kargil, Hyderabad: Orient Black Swan Publishing, 2004.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

6 SAT Essay Examples to Answer Every Prompt

6 SAT Essay Examples to Answer Every Prompt SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. "But wait!" I hear you cry. "Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isn’t the point of the essay that you’re supposed to be using information from the passage in your answer, which you don’t know about ahead of time?" The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the author’s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples you’ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of these reliable types of evidence that can be used to answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. feature image credit: 1 to 9 mosaic, cropped/Used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. Before You Continue If you haven’t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. Why You Can Prep SAT Essay Examples Before Test Day The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: They’re all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the author’s claim They’re all around the same length (650-750 words) They’re all meant to be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty goodidea ahead of time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just don’t have the time to analyze and write about complex techniques. Because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples that’ll be likely found across persuasive passages about many different issues. Naturally, for each passage you're going to want to play to its particular strengths- if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. However, if you struggle with analysis in a short period of time, memorizing these categories of examples ahead of time can give you a helpful checklist to go through when reading the SAT essay prompt and point you in the right direction. Below, we've chosentwo examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of prompts. This flexibility should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. Examples of Evidence The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence. There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in various official SAT Essay prompts. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes. Example Type 1: Facts and Statistics Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. How Can You Identify It? Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand- maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here are a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, "Let There Be Dark" by Paul Bogard: Example: 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way Example: In the UnitedStates and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from "Let There Be Dark": Example: Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen[.] Why Is It Persuasive? Facts and statistics are persuasive argument building techniques because the author isn't just making up reasons for why his/her argument could possibly be true- there's actually something (data, research, other events/information) that backs up the author's claim. In the case of the examples above, Bogard presents specific data about issues with light pollution (8 in 10 children won't be able to see the Milky Way, light in the sky increases 6% annually) to back up his statements that light pollution is real, then goes on to present further information that indicates light pollution is a problem (working the night shift puts humans at risk for cancer). By presenting information and facts, rather than just opinion and spin, Bogard empowers the reader to connect the dots on her own, which in turn gives the reader ownership over the argument and makes it more persuasive (since the reader is coming to the same conclusions on her own, rather than entirely relying on Bogard to tell her what to think). Example Type 2: Anecdotes Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. How Can You Identify It? An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event. When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as â€Å"America’s Serengeti.† Why Is It Persuasive? Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because it’s more relatable/interesting to the reader to read an anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true). In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point- probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. caribou, the hairy eyeball/Used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. I find this caribou highly persuasive. Examples of Reasoning All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. Sometimes, though, the support for a claim on its own might not seem that persuasive- in those cases, an author might then choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type 3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. How Can You Identify It? A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When "some might claim," "however," or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, "The Digital Parent Trap" by Eliana Dockterman: â€Å"You could say some computer games develop creativity,† says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. â€Å"But I don’t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and paint- a lot of really practical and creative endeavors.† But it’s not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. Why Is It Persuasive? So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to make it seem as if the discussion’s going to be more â€Å"fair.† This is still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. A true discussion of the counterargument(as is present in Dockterman's article) willalso show a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument. And because the presence of a counterargument demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, the reader's more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that "it's not that simple" more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type 4: Explanation of Evidence In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. It’s the â€Å"thinking† - the logic, the analysis - that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together." How Can You Identify It? Explanation of evidence is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects a claim to support and explains it, rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports.The reason: engagement. On average, according to research cited by MIT, students can remember only 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear and 50% of what they see demonstrated. But when they’re actually doing something themselves- in the virtual worlds on iPads or laptops- that retention rate skyrockets to 90%.This is a main reason researchers like Ito say the American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendation of a two-hour screen-time limit is an outdated concept: actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV. IMG_6800_v1, cropped/Used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. Why Is It Persuasive? Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's "reasoning" is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And why is it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the author’s argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data (Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV).This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told "Civilization leads to improvements in history" and having to take it on faith, the reader is forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements This final category of examples is the top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Example Type 5: Vivid Language Vivid language is truly the icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although it usually plays a larger role when the passage is lacking in more convincing facts or logic). Modal logic honey cake, cropped/Used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. Vivid language: truly the persuasive icing on your SAT essay prompt cake. Your delicious, delicious SAT cake. Mmm! How Can You Identify It? Vivid language is pretty easy to spot- it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that don’t seem to have purely functional purposes. Here are a couple of examples- the first is Paul Bogard again: †¦show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of "a blanket of light" to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech "Beyond Vietnam- A Time To Break Silence": Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Why Is It Persuasive? Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the author’s shoes and draws them into the passage. If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase "demonic destructive suction tube" is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, "Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money," his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type 6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic. How Can You Identify It? Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader. This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Why Is It Persuasive? Appealing to the emotions, as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author. By describing how the war was causing "their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and die," King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions, on the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world. By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks. In the case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). Review As you can see,these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics. This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how you’ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and anxiety when the test rolls around. DSC_1003, modified/Used under CC BY-NC 2.0. Eh? Eh? ROLLS around? Get it get it #sorrynotsorry What's Next? If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Start to scratch the surface with our 15 tips to improve your SAT essay score. Follow our step-by-step guide to writing a high-scoring essay and learn how to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about what’s changed with the new SAT essay, then follow along as weinvestigate the SAT essay rubric. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out our guide on how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. Want to learn more about the SAT but tired of reading blog articles? Then you'll love our free, SAT prep livestreams. Designed and led by PrepScholar SAT experts, these live video events are a great resource for students and parents looking to learn more about the SAT and SAT prep. 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Saturday, February 15, 2020

PBL2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

PBL2 - Essay Example The ischemic necrosis of kidneys gradually heals by undergoing progressive fibrous scarring (Alpers, pg. 1012). Destruction of extracellular matrix occurs. The regenerative capacity of renal tissue is maximal in cortical tubules, less in medullary tubules, and nonexistent in glomeruli. Hence this is the correct answer. B: Granuloma formation: Granulomas are formed following chronic inflammation and are encountered in some immunological mediated reactions, infections and some non-infections conditions. Some of the common conditions in which granulomatous inflammation occurs are tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, cat-scratch disease, leprosy and syphilis. The granuloma consists macrophages mainly (Kumar, pg.83-84). Hence this is not the correct answer. C: Liquefaction: Liquefaction or liquefactive necrosis is a condition in which the affected cell is completely digested due to powerful hydrolytic enzymes. It usually occurs in fungal and bacterial infections and causes formation of abscess. Also, ischemic injury in brain causes liquefaction (Mitchell, 138). Hence this is not the correct answer. D: Metastatic calcification: Deposition of calcium salts in otherwise normal tissue is known as metastatic calcification. It occurs due to elevated calcium levels. It is commonly seen in the kidneys and lungs. Hence this is not the correct answer. A 25 year old-woman sustains a deep laceration over the right forearm in a motorcycle accident. The wound is cleaned and sutured. During the next 3 months, the wound heals with formation of a linear scar. Which of the following nutritional factors is required for proper collagen assembly in the scar tissue of the patient? A. Folic acid: Folate, the useful form of folic acid is an essential nutrient for the production and maintenance of new cells because it is needed for the replication of DNA. It is not useful for collagen production. Hence this is not the correct